We discovered this issue when a user from the Netherlands reported that, upon upgrading to Java 11, his application now reported that the week started on Sunday. This is incorrect for the Netherlands, but the real issue was the change of behavior.
With JDK11, Java now loads locales differently. https://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/documentation/java11locales-5069639.html#providers details the loading behavior for JDK11, and how it supersedes previous versions. Notably, CLDR, or classloaded entries, now go before COMPAT, or things included with the JDK. This can lead to incorrect behavior with complex classpaths.
To supersede this setting, the
java.locale.providers system setting is used. It’s a comma-separated list of values, where the possible values are the providers in the blog post above. The default value is CLDR,COMPAT,HOST,JRE where JRE is also COMPAT. The value that I would have expected is COMPAT,HOST,CLDR, where it uses the built-in locales first (from JDK9!), then the host locales, then the classloader locales. Setting
-Djava.locale.providers=COMPAT will cause the JDK11 locale loader to act like the JDK9 locale loader.